Category Archives: Archaeology

Mount Ebal Curse Tablet Deciphered

Mount Ebal Curse Tablet Deciphered

Mount Ebal Curse Tablet
The Mount Ebal curse tablet discovered in 2019.

Could Israel’s presence in the land of Canaan be dated earlier than many scholars have thought? Could the account of the building of an altar on Mount Ebal by Joshua mentioned in Joshua 8:30 be substantiated? Could it be possible that Moses did possess an alphabet enabling him to do the writing the Torah claims he did? All of these questions are raised by the decipherment of the Mount Ebal curse tablet. In a startling announcement this past Thursday ( March 24th, 2022), Scott Stripling, an archaeologist with Associates for Biblical Research (ABR), and provost of the Bible Seminary in Katy, Texas, revealed the contents of a curse tablet discovered on Mount Ebal in 2019. If the date of this tablet, currently placed in the Late Bronze Age (1400-1200 B.C.), and it’s translation are confirmed, it will be considered the greatest archaeological discovery in Israel of the 21st century.

The Significance of Mount Ebal

Mount Ebal and Mount Gerazim
Mount Ebal and Mount Gerazim

According to Deuteronomy 27:1-8, Moses commanded the Israelites upon entering the land to go to Mount Ebal. There they were to build an altar. Six of the tribes were to stand on Mount Ebal and pronounce the curses of the Law, while the other six tribes were to stand opposite on Mount Gerazim and pronounce the blessings of the Law. Joshua 8:30-35 records the obedience of Joshua and the Israelites who do as Moses commanded. (For more on the significance of this area, particularly ancient Shechem, see my article here).

Mount Ebal, Adam Zertal, and Joshua’s Altar

Altar location on Mount Ebal
This map from biblewalks.com (see full article here) shows the location of Joshua’s altar on Mount Ebal.

The backstory to the current discovery involves a survey of the area in 1980, by Israeli archaeologist Adam Zertal who also excavated at Mount Ebal from 1982-1989 (see Bible History Daily). Zertal believed that he had uncovered Joshua’s altar. This altar was dated to Iron Age I by Zertal (1200-1000 B.C.). However, there is an earlier altar that is covered by the larger altar. It is this earlier altar that Stripling and his team believes to be Joshua’s altar. This altar dates to the Late Bronze Age, the same age as the Mount Ebal curse tablet.

Joshua's altar
The site of Joshua’s altar as excavated by Adam Zertal. Stripling believes that Joshua’s actual altar is beneath the structure visible in this picture.

Discovery of the Mount Ebal Curse Tablet

In December 2019-January 2020, Stripling and his team received permission and funds to wet sift the archaeological dumps from Zertal’s excavation. Stripling had learned from working at the Temple Mount sifting project (see my article here), as well as at Shiloh, the current site he is excavating with the ABR team, how valuable wet sifting can be in recovering small objects that are accidentally overlooked. It was this process of wet sifting that led to the discovery of the Mount Ebal curse tablet. When it came to light, Stripling and the team knew immediately that the small 2cm led tablet was a curse tablet (also known as a defixio). It was only a question of its age, and whether the inside of the tablet could be read, since the tablet was so brittle. Thanks to modern technological advances, a lab in Prague was able, through special lighting, to obtain images of the letters inside the tablet. With the help of two expert epigraphers (readers of ancient scripts), Pieter Gert van der Veen of Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz and Gershon Galil of the University of Haifa, Stripling was able to translate the script. The script predates the ancient Hebrew script which was in common use during the monarchical period. This script is known from other sources (see my article here) and is called by various names such as Proto-Sinaiatic or Proto-Canaanite script. Stripling prefers to use the neutral term Proto-alphabetic. The inside portion of the Mount Ebal curse tablet reads as follows:

Translation of Mount Ebal Curse Tablet
Translation of the Mount Ebal curse tablet from ABR.

There are a number of interesting features about this translation. Perhaps most significantly are the words curse (which occurs 10 times), and the name of Israel’s God YHW (Yahweh). The pronouncement of a curse on Mount Ebal confirms the biblical affirmation that this mount was viewed in this way. The use of YHW confirms that this is an early Hebrew inscription. In fact, this inscription is at least 200 years, or more, earlier than any previously known Hebrew inscription found in Israel. As the slide above states, the statement occurs in chiastic parallelism, a form very familiar to those who study biblical literature (see, e.g., my article here).

YHW on Mount Ebal curse tablet
Reading from left to right, the letters yod (Y), he (H), and waw (W) form the name of Israel’s God, Yahweh in the ancient Proto-alphabetic script.

Important Implications of the Mount Ebal Curse Tablet

There are a number of important implications regarding the discovery of this tablet as noted in the introduction above. First, this would demonstrate that Israel was in the land earlier than many scholars believe. The curse tablet would put the weight of evidence for the Exodus on a 15th century B.C. date, rather than a 13th century B.C. date. Second, and perhaps most importantly, it demonstrates that writing and reading did exist in Israel at this early date, and thus portions of Scripture could have been written at this time as the Bible affirms. Third, it demonstrates that texts like Deuteronomy 27 and Joshua 8 have an historical basis.


More to Come on the Mount Ebal Curse Tablet

Stripling and his team are currently in the process of publishing an academic report to the scholarly community. As a result, there are aspects about the tablet yet to be revealed. One of these involves the fact that the tablet has writing on the outside. Stripling states that a translation of this part of the tablet will appear in the full report.

For More Information on the Mount Ebal Curse Tablet

To view the full press announcement (one hour long), see ABR researchers Discover the Oldest Known Proto-Hebrew Inscription Ever Found.

For a shorter interview with Scott Stripling see: Podcast: Does a tiny ‘curse tablet; from Mt. Ebal date to the Israelite settlement?

You can also read the following article from the Jerusalem Post: Researchers decipher oldest known Hebrew inscription on ‘cursed’ tablet.

Jerubbaal Inscription Discovered!

Jerubbaal Inscription Discovered!

Jerubaal shard
The Jerubbaal inscription, written in ink on a pottery vessel.
(photo credit: DAFNA GAZIT/ISRAEL ANTIQUITIES AUTHORITY)

An inscription that dates to the time of the judges of Israel (1100 B.C.), has been discovered. The 3100 year old inscription was written in ink on a pottery vessel. Epigrapher Christopher Rollston of George Washington University has deciphered the letters as the name “Jerubbaal.” The piece of pottery was uncovered at Khirbet el-Ra’i, an archaeological site not far from the ancient cities of Gath and Lachish in the southern Judean foothills. The alphabet used was the ancient script that was current in Canaan at the time (see my articles, “Alphabet’s Missing Link Discovered“, and “Oldest Hebrew Writing Discovered From Egypt?“).

Who Was Jerubbaal?

Gideon or Jerubaal
Gideon. also known as Jerubbaal, leads his men against the Midianites.

Jerubbaal is better known by his other name, Gideon. Gideon was the biblical judge who was famous for attacking a large army of Midianites that had invaded the land with only three hundred men carrying torches and pitchers (Judges 7). The name Jerubbaal comes from an incident where God commanded him to tear down the altar of Baal (Judges 6:25-32). Not only was this a risky venture that could have cost Gideon his life, but his father, Joash, was also a priest of Baal! The Bible notes, however, that Joash protected his son and told the towns people who wanted to punish Gideon that if Baal was a god he could contend for himself. Thus Gideon is given the name Jerubbaal, “let Baal contend.”

It should be pointed out that it is not possible to prove that the inscription found refers to the Jerubbaal of Scripture. There may well have been others with that name. However, the archaeologists that discovered the inscription (Yosef Garfinkel and Sa’al Ganor) are not ruling out the possibility that it could refer to the biblical Jerubbaal. It does come from the correct time period and Gideon was a powerful and well-known figure of that time according to the Book of Judges.

The Significance of the Inscription

Ganor and Garfinkel
Sa’al Ganor and Yosef Garfinkel (Credit: Yoli Schwartz Israel Antiquities Authority)

Whether this inscription refers to the actual Jerubbaal of Scripture, or not, the inscription is still very significant. Garfinkel and Ganor state, “As we know, there is considerable debate as to whether biblical tradition reflects reality and whether it is faithful to historical memories from the days of the Judges and the days of David.” The fact that the name Jerubbaal is only found in Scripture during the period of the Judges and that this inscription dates to that period offers some corroborating evidence that the Bible has preserved reliable information. Garfinkel was also the archaeologist responsible for discovering the name Ishbaal on a pot in his excavation of Khirbet Qeiyafa (see my post The Ishbaal Inscription at Khirbet Qeiyafa). The name Ishbaal only occurs in Scripture during the reign of King David (2 Sam. 2-4). The remains at Khirbet Qeiyafa also date to the time of David. This leads these archaeologists to conclude: “The fact that identical names are mentioned in the Bible and also found in inscriptions recovered from archaeological excavations shows that memories were preserved and passed down through the generations.”

For more information see the following articles:

Jerusalem Post: 3,000 year old inscription bearing name of biblical judge found in Israel

Haaretz.com: Israeli archaeologists find biblical name ‘Jerubbaal’ inked on pot from Judges era

Times of Israel: Five-letter inscription inked 3,100 years ago may be name of biblical judge

Alphabet’s Missing Link Discovered

Alphabet’s Missing Link Discovered

Ostraca with alphabet's missing link
This inscribed potsherd, discovered at Tel Lachish, dates to the 15th century B.C. and is the earliest known alphabetic inscription from the ancient land of Canaan.

An ostracon (piece of broken pottery with writing) discovered at Tel Lachish, has been hailed as the alphabet’s missing link by Austrian Archaeologist Dr. Felix Höflmayer. The discovery is being referred to as the alphabet’s missing link because until now a chronological gap existed between the earliest evidence for the alphabet and its appearance in ancient Canaan. The earliest form of alphabetic writing known comes from the Sinai (Serabit el-Khadim) and Egypt (Wadi el-Hol) and dates to the 19th century B.C. (see my article Oldest Hebrew Writing Discovered From Egypt?). Previous to this discovery at Lachish the oldest alphabetic writing in the Levant (the area which includes Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel) dated to the 13th century B.C. This discovery helps to close the chronological gap and demonstrates that writing existed in ancient Canaan earlier than previously thought.

This map shows the locations of the earliest alphabetic inscriptions. Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai and Wadi el-Hol in Egypt.

Alphabet’s Missing Link: What Does It Say?

The ostracon contains a total of nine letters. Two words of three letters each appear, along with 3 miscellaneous letters. Reading from right to left, the first word, written diagonally in the upper left, contains the letters ʿayin (ע), bet (ב), and dalet (ד) which spells the Hebrew word ‘ebed meaning “slave.” Höflmayer suggests this may be part of a name since names containing these components are common in all Semitic languages (e.g., Ebed-Melech–Jer. 38:7ff.). The second word, at the bottom, reading right to left contains the letters, nun (נ), pe (פ), tav (ת) which spells the word “honey” or “nectar.” The two letters in the upper righthand corner and the letter between the two words are all the letter nun (נ). The significance of these letters is not known, although it appears there was more to the inscription than what appears on this potsherd. It needs to be noted that the words “slave” and “honey” are conjectural. During this period when the alphabet was being developed there was no standard direction for writing letters, so the letters might be read from left to right or right to left (sometimes they were even written vertically!).

Why Is a Small Piece of Pottery With 9 Letters On It So Significant?

The area at Tel Lachish where the alphabet's missing link was discovered
This picture shows the area at Tel Lachish where the alphabet’s missing link was discovered. Area S, looking west. Early Late Bronze Age fortification, with the southern wall of building 100 (L1027) on the right side (figure by J. Dye & L. Webster, Austrian Academy of Sciences).

For Bible believers, the discovery is significant because it shows that writing was possible and more widespread than previously thought. Some have argued that Moses couldn’t have composed the writings contained in the Torah because an alphabet hadn’t been invented yet. The alphabetic writings from Egypt, Sinai, and now Lachish, demonstrate that the alphabet not only existed during the time of Moses but was being used throughout the region the Bible locates the Israelites in.

Map of Lachish where alphabet's missing link was discovered
The location of Lachish, ancient Judah’s second largest city.

The discovery is also significant because it can be precisely dated. Höflmayer writes, “The newly discovered inscription from Tel Lachish is currently the earliest securely dated example of early alphabetic writing in the Southern Levant.” Other examples of early writing exist, but either they were not found in a secure archaeological context, or it is disputed if the writing is alphabetic. One example of this, which also comes from Lachish, is the Lachish Dagger (photo can be found here). This dagger, discovered in 1934 at a tomb in Lachish contains what most scholars believe is four alphabetic symbols. This dagger dates to the late Middle Bronze Age (1650 B.C. – 1550 B.C.). Some, however, dispute that the symbols are alphabetic.

The discovery of this “missing link,” along with the dagger, and other writings, has some scholars believing that Lachish was an important center of writing. Höflmayer states, “Indeed, Lachish has yielded more examples of Late Bronze Age early alphabetic inscriptions than any other site.”

For more on the Biblical significance of this discovery see, Alphabet’s Missing Link Discovered in Canaan.

Höflmayer’s own account is available at Early alphabetic writing in the ancient Near East: the ‘missing link’ from Tel Lachish.

For more on the significance of Tel Lachish see my article Tel Lachish in the Toilet.

 

 

3000 Year Old City Discovered in Egypt

3000 Year Old City Discovered in Egypt

3000 year old city, The Rise of Aten
This 3000 year old city is the largest ever discovered in Egypt. Photo Credit: Dr. Zahi Hawass, Facebook.

It has been hailed as, “the second most important archeological discovery since the tomb of Tutankhamun” (Betsy Bryan, Egyptologist, Johns Hopkins University). The lost city known as Aten, is the largest ancient city ever discovered in Egypt. This 3000 year old city dates to the time of Amenhotep III, one of Egypt’s most powerful pharaohs. Amenhotep III was the ninth pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty and reigned from 1391 to 1353 B.C. and is the grandfather of the famous Tutankhamun (King Tut). Aten was the homebase of the Pharaohs during this time until Akhenaten, the son of Amenhotep III, moved the capital to Amarna.

Discovery and Location

Location of Aten
Aten is located approximately 300 miles south of Cairo near the Valley of the Kings.
Location of Aten
Aerial view of the location of the archaeological site near the Valley of the Kings. Photo Credit: Zahi Hawass, Facebook.

Zahi Hawass, the director of the excavation, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, stated, “Many foreign missions searched for this city and never found it.” The 3000 year old city was discovered accidentally while searching for the Mortuary Temple of Tutankhamun. Excavations began in September 2020 near Luxor (ancient Thebes) and the Valley of the Kings, about 300 miles south of Cairo. The Valley of the Kings is famous as the burial place of many pharaohs and state officials from the 16th to the 11th centuries B.C. King Tut’s tomb was discovered in this location in 1922. While Hawass still believes the Temple of Tutankhamun will be discovered, the uncovering of the 3000 year old city was something no one anticipated.

The Pompeii of Ancient Egypt

Egyptian Scarab from Aten
This scarab was among the finds, along with jewelry, pottery, some with writing, and other daily items. Photo Credit: Zahi Hawass Facebook.

When I first read about the discovery of Aten, the first thought that came to me was that this discovery was the equivalent of the discovery of Pompeii. (I have since seen a YouTube video using the same language.) The reason is that the city was found in an amazing state of preservation. According to Hawass the discovery included the, “city’s streets flanked by houses,” with intact walls up to 9-10 feet high (3 meters) and “rooms filled with tools of daily life … left by the ancient residents as if it were yesterday.” This provides an unprecedented ability to learn much about daily Egyptian life during this most prosperous period of Egypt’s history. Among the items found were, jewelry, pottery, amulets and mud bricks bearing seals of Amenhotep III. An inscription dated to the 37th year of Amenhotep III, found on a container filled with boiled or dry meat (anyone hungry for some 3000 year old meat?), gives a secure date for the city.

The City’s Layout

3000 year old city
©AFP via Getty Images

The amazing state of preservation of this 3000 year old city has allowed the excavators to identify 7 different residential neighborhoods. There is also an industrial and administrative center.   There is evidence of glassmaking, metal work, and even a bakery. In fact, the bakery is quite large and includes a cooking and preparation area with ovens and storage pottery. Hawass notes, “From its size, we can state the kitchen was catering a very large number of workers and employees.” A cemetery, along with stone tombs similar to those in the Valley of the Kings, has also been located, although they have yet to be explored. It has been stated that, “The mission expects to uncover untouched tombs filled with treasures.” While most of the southern portion of the city has been excavated, the northern region still awaits the excavator’s spade. This, of course, means that we can look forward to more exciting finds.

For some beautiful photos of the site and the various finds see “First Look Inside Egypt’s ‘Lost Golden City.'”

Informative videos can be found at the following links:

Rise of Aten: Lost Golden City Discovered 3000 Years Old!

Archaeologists Unearth 3000 Year Old Stunningly Preserved Lost Egyptian City (this video has some interviews with Zahi Hawass).

New Dead Sea Scroll Discovered

New Dead Sea Scroll Discovered

New Dead Sea Scroll
Sections of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets scroll discovered in the Judean Desert expedition prior to their conservation. (photo credit: SHAI HALEVI / ISRAEL ANTIQUITIES AUTHORITY)

The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) has announced today (Tuesday March 16, 2021), the discovery of a new Dead Sea Scroll. The scroll is 2,000 years old and contains portions of the 12 minor prophets. It is not intact but consists of over two dozen fragments. and was written in Greek. Interestingly, the name of God is written in paleo-Hebrew script.

New Dead Sea Scroll
One of the fragments after unraveling. Credit: Shai Halevi, Israel Antiquities Authority

The scroll contains parts of Nahum and Zechariah and is thought to be a missing part of a Minor Prophets scroll discovered in 1952 which included parts of Micah. One of the fragments reads, “These are the things you are to do: Speak the truth to one another, render true and perfect justice in your gates. And do not contrive evil against one another, and do not love perjury, because all those are things that I hate – declares the Lord.” These words from Zechariah 8:16-17 seem like a particularly appropriate admonition for our world today.

A New Intensive Search for Dead Sea Scrolls

Cave of Horror
The Cave of Horror where the most recent Dead Sea Scrolls were found can only be accessed by descending on ropes. The distance is 80 meters or over 262 feet!

This recent discovery is the result of a new intensive search for Dead Sea Scrolls. Archaeologists have long believed there are other scrolls yet to be discovered. The number of caves in the Judean Wilderness is vast and many remain unexplored. The cave that yielded the recent finds was explored in 1960 by the famous Israeli archaeologist, Yigael Yadin. It was dubbed “the Cave of Horror” because of the remains of the skeletons of 40 men, women, and children discovered there. No scrolls were recovered at that time, however, a Greek copy of the Book of the Twelve (the Minor Prophets) was discovered later. This is why it is assumed that the recent discovery is part of this same scroll. To date, only about 50% of the caves have been investigated. There is a renewed urgency in examining these caves and finding any potential scrolls before antiquities thieves discover them and seek financial gain from their sale.

Antiquities Forgery is Big Business!

Museum of the Bible
Sadly, this past year (2020), it was announced that all 16 Dead Sea Scrolls in the Museum of the Bible in Washington D. C. were forgeries!

It is important that the scrolls, and any antiquities for that matter, be found in a legitimate archaeological context by professional archaeologists. When items appear on the antiquities market, there is always the danger of forgeries. The 16 Dead Sea Scrolls at the Museum of the Bible in Washington D. C., all revealed to be forgeries this past year, is a painful reminder of this reality. (See my former article here when these scrolls were thought/hoped to be original.)

Other Recent Discoveries in the “Cave of Horror”

Bar Kokhba coins
Coins from the Bar Kokhba revolt were also discovered. Credit: Ofer Sion, Israel Antiquities Authority

The cave has also yielded other interesting finds, including the skeleton of a child, dated 6,000 years old and a weaved basket in excellent condition, carbon-dated to 10,000 years old (see below). Finally, some coins from the Bar-Kokhba revolt (132-135 A.D.) were also discovered (see photo above).

For more information on this recent find, including additional photos and a video see the following links: Jerusalem Post,  Haaretz, Verietyinfo,  Video link on recent discovery

This month the Historical Faith Society, a part of the Patterns of Evidence ministry, is highlighting the search for new Dead Sea Scrolls. Click on the first link for further information and a short video.